Creating a VPN With 2 Factor Authentication Using OpenVPN and Docker

I recently set up a VPN with 2-Factor Authentication using the Community Edition of OpenVPN and using Google’s standard authenticator. I am writing this article to save you time and effort because this was not straightforward.

Most guides I found on the internet, if not all, talk about using a PAM plugin to extend OpenVPN with 2 Step Authentication. Not only is this plugin difficult to install because of Linux library dependencies, but most importantly it requires a real Unix user for each VPN account you need to setup. For me, that was a non-starter as all my existing VPN users reside only inside a database.


Before the need for extra security via 2-factor authentication came up, I was already using OpenVPN with the help of an excellent open-source project in GitHub which provides a web administration interface ( Since I only use the community edition of OpenVPN, this project gives you access to a neat management interface, from which you can create & manage VPN user accounts, and also allow VPN users to download the files that they need to connect to the VPN. The management interface is a simple PHP web interface that uses a MariaDB as a backend.

What is OpenVPN?

According to Wikipedia: “OpenVPN is an open-source commercial software that implements virtual private network techniques to create secure point-to-point or site-to-site connections in routed or bridged configurations and remote access facilities. It uses a custom security protocol that utilizes SSL/TLS for key exchange”.

Why we need it

With more people working from home due to lockdowns, this has required ways for workers to be able to access intranet websites from within their homes without compromising security and without relying on IP address whitelisting as Home IP addresses are not normally static.

To make the VPN more secure I added 2-Factor authentication using Google’s Authenticator reference application.

How it works

This OpenVPN solution uses three separate open-source projects:

The Community edition of OpenVPN does not provide 2 Factor authentication, therefore I had to add this feature.

So I forked the GitHub project and added extra functionality required for enabling the Google Authenticator functionality.

The new OpenVPN implementation runs as 4 docker containers:

  • openvpn docker container runs the OpenVPN server
  • webadmin runs the webadmin interface for OpenVPN
  • googleauth is a docker container that runs a small PHP microservice to do the 2 step authentication(pairing and validation).
  • openvpn_docker_nginx is the docker container that exposes the OpenVPN interface via SSL


  1. Install Docker
  2. Install docker-compose

Steps for setup:

$git clone
$cd OpenVPN-Docker-GoogleAuth
docker-compose up -dCreating network "openvpn-docker-googleauth_default" with the default driver
Creating volume "openvpn-docker-googleauth_openvpn_config" with default driver
Creating volume "openvpn-docker-googleauth_db_data" with default driver
Building openvpnStep 1/16 : FROM centos/php-72-centos7
latest: Pulling from centos/php-72-centos7
75f829a71a1c: Pull complete
e2c4942f4189: Pull complete
f1498894b11c: Pull complete
da56c9694723: Pull complete
07fa76fc639e: Pull complete
8adb3980d23d: Pull complete
bf52e0852ccc: Pull complete
022196718e3e: Pull complete
8d81a4f20bd7: Pull completeDigest: sha256:8eee082936869e8c77abb2eb18f10f61de02dc10c36b01cb35955114be2afd64Status: Downloaded newer image for centos/php-72-centos7:latest---> 6df586f63c89Step 2/16 : USER root---> Running in 2ea6f77e847c....bootstrap#3.4.1 vendor/bootstrap
└── jquery#2.2.4
Removing intermediate container cc0508eca502
---> d94208cdefe1
Step 14/15 : RUN rm -fr /root/OpenVPN-Admin && chown -R www-data:www-data /var/www/html
---> Running in 319edaf415c7
Removing intermediate container 319edaf415c7
---> 5aaa0ae56087
Step 15/15 : COPY ./webadmin/ /usr/local/bin
---> d8a662dbafd5
Successfully built d8a662dbafd5
Successfully tagged openvpn-docker-googleauth_webadmin:latest
Creating googleauth ... done
Creating db ... done
Creating openvpn ... done
Creating webadmin ... done

Now check that you have 4 docker containers running in your system:

$docker ps -aCONTAINER ID        IMAGE                                  COMMAND                  CREATED             STATUS              PORTS                                        NAMES0917e2be15b4        openvpn-docker-googleauth_webadmin     "docker-php-entrypoi…"   2 minutes ago       Up 2 minutes>80/tcp                         webadminda8c0f04bdfe        openvpn-docker-googleauth_openvpn      "docker-entrypoint.s…"   2 minutes ago       Up 2 minutes        8080/tcp,>1099/tcp, 8443/tcp   openvpn4985a54a5594        openvpn-docker-googleauth_googleauth   "docker-php-entrypoi…"   2 minutes ago       Up 2 minutes        80/tcp                                       googleauth970f978c37d1        mariadb                                "docker-entrypoint.s…"   2 minutes ago       Up 2 minutes        3306/tcp                                     db

The googleauth docker container is needed for the 2 factor authentication. It is called internally by openvpn and the webadmin when doing the 2 factor authentication.

The db docker container is used to store usernames/passwords.

The OpenVPN container runs the OpenVPN server to which the OpenVPN will connect.

The webadmin container contains the OpenVPN web administration interface where you can create VPN accounts and setup 2 Factor authentication.

To access the OpenVPN web administration interface you can use:


OpenVPN Web Admin

Before we can log in, we need to do the initial setup:

Go to the following URL:


Pick an admin username and a secure password.

Now we should be able to login:

The new user should be visible in the list below:

Now that you have a VPN user, there are three steps required for setup of each VPN user.

  1. Set up 2-Factor Authentication: Each VPN user needs to download the Google Authenticator app and pair the app with their VPN account. Note that it is possible to switch off 2 Factor authentication via the admin UI.
  2. Download OpenVPN zip file: To be able to create a new profile, you need to download a ZIP file that contains the client certificate(.ovpn file) that you will need later when setting up the OpenVPN client.
  3. Setting up the OpenVPN client

Setting up 2-Factor Authentication

  1. Navigate to the OpenVPN Web Administration Page, at http://localhost:8080
  2. Click Setup Google Authentication on the navigation bar
  3. Enter the credentials given by your administrator to log in.

4. After login you should see the following page:

At this stage, you should install the Google Authenticator app on your mobile phone.

Open your Google Authenticator App, and press the ‘+’ icon in the top right and then press ‘Scan Barcode’

Point your camera at the QR code and you should see the profile appear with your details.

5. Next you need to type the 6 digit PIN number you see in the Authenticator app. If it all goes well, the pairing will succeed and you will see a “Pairing succeeded” message. If you see an error instead, it is possible that you were too slow typing the PIN number. Try again.

Download OpenVPN zip file

  1. Navigate to the OpenVPN Web Administration Page, at http://localhost:8080
  2. Click Configurations on the navigation bar
  3. Enter the VPN user credentials given by your administrator to log in.
  4. Choose the correct OS from the dropdown: Linux, OS X(MacOS) or Windows
  5. Click “Get Configuration Files”. You will be downloading a ZIP file with the required client configuration for OpenVPN. Keep it in a safe folder. You will need it soon.

Setting up the OpenVPN Client

I am assuming at this stage that you have already completed the steps above and your VPN is accessible via a public IP address on a given port. The VPN IP address will be stored in the client certificates that we downloaded earlier.

Download the OpenVPN client for your operating system. Ensure that you download version 3 or above. Version 2 will not work.

MacOS Download:

Windows Download:

Install the OpenVPN client.

Install the client Certificate

After installing the OpenVPN client, you should see the following screen:

Initial screen without any VPN profiles

Click the + sign, and select file.

Select the client.ovpn file you downloaded in the earlier step(don’t forget to unzip).

At this stage, you need to supply your VPN credentials. Click Save Password. But remember that every time you log in, if you don’t disable 2 Factor Authentication you will need to add your 6 digits PIN number to the end of your password. This is slightly annoying, but worth it because of the extra security.

Click Save when you are done.

And that’s it, you now have a VPN profile setup ready to connect.

Connecting to the VPN using 2 Factor Authentication

Every time you try to connect to the VPN you will need to supply a six-digit PIN that is everchanging. This PIN is available from the google authenticator app.

  1. Just before you login take note of the latest PIN number(you need to be quick)
  2. Click the toggle button on the left-hand side to connect to the VPN

3. At this stage you will be prompted for your password.

Enter your password and add at the end of your password without any extra spaces the PIN number from step 1. Click OK

4. You will see a Connection Error message. Click “Continue”

5. If all goes well, you are connected to the VPN!

And a new world opens up!
Hope you enjoy it.